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Pilot Active Citation Compilation

An Active Citation Compilation (ACC) gathers sources that scholars provide in tandem with activating the citations in a piece of scholarship. Active Citation (AC), originally developed by Moravcsik (e.g., 2010, 2012a, 2012b, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c, 2016), entails digitally enhancing the citations (in-text references, footnotes, and/or endnotes) in a piece of scholarship based on qualitative or multi-method research.  Citations that support important claims, conclusions, and inferences are “activated” – hyperlinked to a Transparency Appendix (TRAX) where more rigorous, annotated versions of the citations appear.  In addition, when the actual sources that underlie the activated citations can be legally and ethically shared, the TRAX includes hyperlinks to these sources, which are gathered in an active citation compilation.

A pilot ACC by Jack Snyder (Columbia University) – Chapter 7 (“Russia: The Politics and Psychology of Overcommitment”) in The Ideology of the Offensive: Military Decision Making and the Disasters of 1914 (Cornell University Press, 1984) can be found here.

Since Snyder’s and other pilot ACCs were created, QDR and software development firm Hypothesis ( have partnered to develop a new approach to transparency in qualitative and multi-method research that builds on Active Citation: Annotation for Transparent Inquiry (ATI). You can find a quick introduction to ATI here, can learn more about its intellectual underpinnings here, and can view a working paper that employs ATI here (the annotations should appear beside the PDF, to the right). If you are interested in using ATI in your own work you can follow these instructions to create an Annotation for Transparent Inquiry Data Supplement to accompany a digital publication.